Chicken farm solutions
Growing chickens in a highly industrialized environment, such as intensive farming, makes it possible for a large number of distressing factors to take over. They act through receptors and then feel nervous and hormonal, having an effect upon different organs and tissues, disrupting their integrity and function.
Air temperature: exercises a strong influence on the metabolism and thus on ensuring a healthy systems. Chick behavior is the best indicator of correct temperature.
- Chickens are evenly distributed and eat and drink water normally from all the feeders and drinkers
- Noise level represents comfort
- Chickens sleep and are distributed unevenly to the walls under air supply grilles away from the heating system
- Chicks are panting, with lowered heads and wings
- Chickens do not make any noise
- The risk of dehydration by moisture loss exists
- There is a risk of asphyxiation by high emissions of CO2 and CO
- There is a need to increase the ventilation which increases the concentration of airborne dust and microorganisms with adverse health effects
- Chickens retire in areas without drafts
- Chickens scramble near the heating system
- They don’t eat or drink enough - It lowers the degree of ventilationRelative humidity should be maintained at 45-65%. Lower values than 45% causes discomfort and irritation of the respiratory mucosa, and 65% lead to lower partial pressure of the oxygen and strain the cardiovascular system, with negative influences on gas exchange in the lungs.The ventilation system must have sufficient capacity to avoid overheating and to remove excess moisture. It is also necessary to provide minimum of ventilation.
In case the stocking exceeds 33kgm², during the summer the temperature difference between inside and outside can not be higher than 3°C (when the outside temperature exceeds 30 ° C in the shade).When outside temperatures are below 10°C, the average relative humidity in the shelter, measured over 48 hours should not exceed 70%. The chicks performance varies when the temperature remains between 20-25°C.
Therefore, if the outside temperature is below 20°C, a target value of the inner temperature of 20°C ensures maximum volume of fresh air to a necessary minimum warm. Instead, when the outside temperature exceeds 25°C, ventilation could only provide a cooling effect for the chicks.High outside temperatures and heat from litter can cause the temperature of the production area to reach a critical threshold. When the chickens reach 35 days, it is expected that the temperature at the surface of the bedding to be approximately greater by 6-8°C than the air temperature. The cooling of the birds can be achieved in several ways, first through evaporative cooling and then cooling by convection (air movement).Air speed is essential. Drafts have a particularly important role in maintaining the thermal equilibrium of the birds. They serve conditioning gradation of critical body temperature of birds, increasing or decreasing the neutral zone. Such large air currents help in losing body heat for the birds, reducing the insulating ability of the skin and feathers. Given that in the shelter there is a high temperature and humid air currents, they are recommended at higher speed, because the birds remove excess heat more easily. The action of air drafts in the production halls is closely correlated with temperature and humidity in shelters.
- Hygiene requirements for animal shelters provide air velocities of 0.1-0.3 m/s, for winter and summer values up to 1.5 m/s and only exceptionally 2 m/s
- It is very important to implement measures for uniform air flow, but in many cases, and especially in summer, when ventilation is functioning at full capacity, uniform air velocity is a goal difficult to achieve. In veterinary hygiene, correlation between temperature, humidity and air speed can be deduced only by calculation, based on nomograms established experimentally.Gases can affect the respiratory tract of birds, decreasing production performance. When the stocking density is high (over 33 kg / m2), the concentration of ammonia (NH3) does not exceed 20 ppm and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) 3.000 ppm, these values being measured at head level (2007/43 /WHAT).
When choosing the right heating system, chicken farms must consider the following factors:
- Investment value
- The risk of fire
- The annual cost of heating
- The cost of maintenance
- Distribution of heating
- Influence the humidity
- Influence the airspeed- Influence the air hygiene
- Influence the litter
- The ability to adjust
- Thermal power equipment
Although natural gases go up continuously, it remains the most widely used fuel, biogas or biomass alternative greatly increase investment value without significantly reducing the cost of fuel.Heat can be transmitted through:
- convection - using hot air generators with direct or indirect heating
- radiation - brooder with radiant heating panels and radiant tubes with direct or indirect heating.
Direct heating – combustion is made in the ambient air and flue gases get mixed up with it.
Indirect heating – combustion in focused outbreak, the heat transfer is done indirectly through a heat exchanger, flue gasses are discharged outside.
The centralized hot water system isn’t taken in consideration, being necessary a big investment.Heating systems with generators are common with direct heating through convection and panels with direct radiation.
Hot air generators show the following problems:
- Flue gases (CO2, CO, NOx, H2O) are mixed with ambient air
- Burner and other components of the generator get dirty quickly leading to incomplete combustion
- Stratification height is achieved, the upper hall is much warmer than the area occupied by chicken
- The surface distribution of the warehouse is uneven, generators surrounding area are much warmer
- Dust is dried
- Adjustment usually is made by stopping or turning devices or two-stage operation
The panels and radiation have the following problems:
- The flue gases (CO2, CO, NOx, H2O) are mixed with the ambient air
- Radiant burner surface gets dirty quickly resulting in incomplete combustion
- Because 40% of the heat is transmitted by convection, stratification height is achieved, the upper hall is warmer than the area occupied by chicken
- It creates a focused sub zonal heating radiant
- The adjustment usually is reduced by controlling the gas pressure
Convective and radiant tubes
space heating equipment by radiation and convection (hot air), delamination, condensing.
Radiants with metallic fabric
space heating equipment, alternative to both luminous, bright-wave radiation heating heating installation, focused on industrial spaces.
Request the optimal solution for the scaling of the heating system in a chicken farm.
You will receive a questionnare with the required data as soon as possible.
Heating with hot air generators
Heating with brooders
Heating with radiant tubes
- The risk of ignition is high, combustion reaches in the interior of the hall, where the sheets are easily combustible components
- Frequent and required maintenance need to be made consisting of cleaning the burners
- Heating distribution is uneven and thermal comfort is ensured only in certain areas- Ambient humidity is permanently affected by water vapor generation as a result of direct combustion
- Air speed is often uneven and may increase due to necessary ventilation to reduce humidity and dilute pollutants (CO2, CO, ammonia, dust)
- Air hygiene is affected by drying dust by generating CO2 and CO due to combustion and the generation of ammonia due to litter moisture
- Bedding is wet and in many areas with inadequate temperature
- Thermal shock due to a faulty adjustment (all or nothing or two-stage)
- high efficiency, combustion efficiency is 95-107% with the possibility the recovery of condensation, but also by delamination, leading to fuel savings of up to 35% compared to the alternatives
- Fire risk is very low, combustion is performed inside a sealed firebox, flue gases are evicted outside
- Maintenance work was only needed in cleaning the reflectors between the breaks in the cycles
- Distribution of heating is uniform, thermal comfort is assured over the entire hall with both heat transfer by radiation and convection
- Ambient humidity generation is not affected by water vapor, combustion flue gas is indirect and is evicted outside
- Air speed is uniform, generating hot air evenly over the entire hall’s surface, there is generation of pollutants which could impose additional ventilation
- Air hygiene is not affected by the generation of CO2 and CO due to combustion and the generation of ammonia due to litter moisture
- Bedding is warm and dry by radiation with uniform temperature
- Thermal shock is eliminated, the burners operate with modulations, their power permanently adapts to the heat